Diabetes – Diabetes Type 1 & Type 2

 

Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.

 

What is Type 1 Diabetes?

What is Type 1 Diabetes? www.clearlyhealth.com



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Diabetes Mellitus

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Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.

This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

There are three main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes: results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
  • Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
  • Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.

All forms of diabetes have been treatable since insulin became available in 1921, and type 2 diabetes may be controlled with medications.
Both type 1 and 2 are chronic conditions that usually cannot be cured. Pancreas transplants have been tried with limited success in type 1 DM; gastric bypass surgery has been successful in many with morbid obesity and type 2 DM.

Gestational diabetes usually resolves after delivery.
Diabetes without proper treatments can cause many complications.
Acute complications include hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or nonketotic hyperosmolar coma.

Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, retinal damage.

Adequate treatment of diabetes is thus important, as well as blood pressure control and lifestyle factors such as smoking cessation and maintaining a healthy body weight.

As of 2000 at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, or 2.8% of the population.
Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common, affecting 90 to 95% of the U.S. diabetes population.

 

Most cases of diabetes mellitus fall into three broad categories: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

A few other types are described. The term diabetes, without qualification, usually refers to diabetes mellitus.
The rare disease diabetes insipidus has similar symptoms as diabetes mellitus, but without disturbances in the sugar metabolism (insipidus meaning “without taste” in Latin).

 

The term “type 1 diabetes” has replaced several former terms, including childhood-onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).

Likewise, the term “type 2 diabetes” has replaced several former terms, including adult-onset diabetes, obesity-related diabetes, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).

Beyond these two types, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature.

Various sources have defined “type 3 diabetes” as: gestational diabetes, insulin-resistant type 1 diabetes (or “double diabetes”), type 2 diabetes which has progressed to require injected insulin, and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (or LADA or “type 1.5” diabetes)

 

Researched & Revised Sunday,  August 21, 2011

Nick Naggar, Publisher

 

Resources include:   Google.com, YouTube.com, WIKIPEDIA.com

 

 

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